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Green Synthesis of Palladium/Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Application for the Reduction of Methyl Orange, Congo Red and Rhodamine B in Aqueous Medium


Mehdi Maham*, Mahmoud Nasrollahzadeh, Mojtaba Bagherzadeh and Reza Akbari  


Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) supported on the TiO2 NPs were prepared via a green alternative process using Euphorbia thymifolia L. leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. This extract has both the reducing compounds, as phenolic acids, and stabilizing agents, as flavonols that responsible for the bioreduction of Pd2+ and stabilization of Pd NPs. The Pd/TiO2 NPs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The Pd/TiO2 NPs exhibited high activity towards the reduction of Methyl Orange (MO), Congo red (CR) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in the presence of NaBH4 in aqueous medium. FESEM imaging showed the formation of NPs in the size range of 19-29 nm. The catalytic reduction reactions were monitored by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, the catalyst can be recovered and recycled several times without significant loss of activity. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study explains the first report to synthesis of Pd/TiO2 NPs using Euphorbia thymifolia L. leaf extract.


Green synthesis, Pd/TiO2, Nanocatalyst, Reduction, Organic dyes, Euphorbia thymifolia.


Young Researchers and Elite Club, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom 3716146611, Material Research School, NSTRI, 81465-1589, Isfahan, I. R, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Science, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad

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