Wai Mun Kong, Zamri Chik, Zahurin Mohamed and Mohammed A. Alshawsh*
Mitragynine, a major active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, acts as an agonist on μ-opioid receptors, producing effects similar to morphine and other opioids. It has been traditionally utilized to alleviate opiate withdrawal symptoms. Besides consideration about potency and selectivity, a good drug must possess a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, with suitable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME-Tox) profile, in order to have a high chance of success in clinical trials. The purity of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract (MSAE) was determined using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC). In vitro high throughput ADME-Tox studies such as aqueous solubility, plasma protein binding, metabolic stability, permeability and cytotoxicity tests were carried out to analyze the physicochemical properties of MSAE and mitragynine. The UFLC quantification revealed that the purity of mitragynine in the MSAE was 40.9%. MSAE and mitragynine are highly soluble in aqueous solution at pH 4.0 but less soluble at pH 7.4. A parallel artificial membrane permeability assay demonstrated that it is extensively absorbed through the semi-permeable membrane at pH 7.4 but very poorly at pH 4.0. Both are relatively highly bound to plasma proteins (> 85 % bound) and are metabolically stable to liver microsomes (> 84 % remained unchanged). In comparison to MSAE, mitragynine showed higher cytotoxicity against WRL 68, HepG2 and Clone 9 hepatocytes after 72 h treatment. The obtained ADME and cytotoxicity data demonstrated that both MSAE and mitragynine have poor bioavailability and have the potential to be significantly cytotoxic.
ADME-Tox, Cytotoxicity, Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid extract, Mitragynine, Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography, High Throughput
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur