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Structural Characterization of Gallbladder Stones Using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction

[ Vol. 21 , Issue. 7 ]


Hassan A. Almarshad, Sayed M. Badawy* and Abdalkarem F. Alsharari   Pages 495 - 500 ( 6 )


Aim and Objective: Formation of the gallbladder stones is a common disease and a major health problem. The present study aimed to identify the structures of the most common types of gallbladder stones using X-ray spectroscopic techniques, which provide information about the process of stone formation.

Material and Method: Phase and elemental compositions of pure cholesterol and mixed gallstones removed from gallbladders of patients were studied using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy combined with scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction.

Results: The crystal structures of gallstones which coincide with standard patterns were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Plate-like cholesterol crystals with laminar shaped and thin layered structures were clearly observed for gallstone of pure cholesterol by scanning electron microscopy; it also revealed different morphologies from mixed cholesterol stones. Elemental analysis of pure cholesterol and mixed gallstones using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the different formation processes of the different types of gallstones.

Conclusion: The method of fast and reliable X-ray spectroscopic techniques has numerous advantages over the traditional chemical analysis and other analytical techniques. The results also revealed that the X-ray spectroscopy technique is a promising technique that can aid in understanding the pathogenesis of gallstone disease.


X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cholesterol, gallstone, electron microscopy analysis.


Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka, National Center for Clinical and Environmental Toxicology, NECTR, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka

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