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Pathophysiological Effects of Sulfur Mustard on Skin and its Current Treatments: Possible Application of Phytochemicals

Author(s):

Mehdi Hassanpour, Fateme Hajihassani, Mina Abdollahpourasl, Omid Cheraghi, Nasser Aghamohamadzade, Reza Rahbargazi, Mohammad Nouri, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Yunes Panahi and Amirhossein Sahebkar*   Pages 1 - 17 ( 17 )

Abstract:


Background: Sulfur-(SM) and nitrogen (NM)-based mustards are mutagenic incapacitating compounds that are widely used in vesicating chemical warfare and cause toxicity in many organs especially skin. SM, as a potent vesicating agent, contributes to the destruction of skin in dermis and epidermis layers. The progression of lesion is dependent on the concentration of SM and duration of exposure. Body responses start with pruritus, erythema, edema and xerosis, which lead to the accumulation of immune cells in the target sites and recruitment of mast cells and paracrine-mediated activity. Quickly pro-inflammatory effectors are accumulated in the epidermis, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands resulting in the destruction of basement membrane beneath epidermis. There is still no satisfactory countermeasure against SM-induced lesions in the clinical therapy and symptomatic or supportive treatments are routine management approaches.

Objective: This review highlights recent progression of herbal medicines application in SM-induced injuries through illustrative examples also demonstrate their efficacies, properties and mechanism of actions as therapeutic agents.

Conclusion: Phytochemicals and herbal extracts with anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties have been recently shown to hold therapeutic promise against SM-induced cutaneous complications. The current review elaborates on the possible application of herbal medicines in the healing of SM-induced injuries.

Keywords:

Sulfur mustard, skin injury, wound healing, phytochemical therapy, SM-induced injuries, herbal medicines.

Affiliation:

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Health Management, School of Management and Medical informatics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Endocrine and Metabolism Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Department of Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Pharmacotherapy Department, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran



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