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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and its changing scenario: A scoping review

Author(s):

Sumit Aggarwal*, Amit Kumar Singh, Sivaraman Balaji and Deepti Ambalkar  

Abstract:


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have existed worldwide since ancient time, causing significant morbidity and mortality. To maintain healthy sexual and reproductive life, it is highly essential to prevent STIs, RTIs and related illnesses. STIs are transmitted by swapping body fluids among people during sexual intercourse. The etiological agents for STIs are bacteria, virus and parasites for most cases, but proportions by different aetiology are changing. Various studies have shown that STIs are increasing, and its primary aetiology is changing worldwide. That should be considered seriously and needs necessary actions. Several factors related to hosts and disease-causing agents have identified to influence STIs' current strategies in the prevention and control program. The present assessment attempts to review the history, changing aetiology and antimicrobial resistance in STIs. This review has also highlighted the prevalence of STIs at the global level and their past and present trends in India, emphasising its future challenges and perspectives for making effective public health policies to prevent and control STIs.

Keywords:

STIs, RTIs, Reproductive health, Infectious agents, antimicrobial resistance, STI policies.

Affiliation:

Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases Division, Indian Council of Medical Research-Headquarters, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, ICMR-National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and other Mycobacterial diseases, Tajgani, Agra-282004, Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases Division, Indian Council of Medical Research-Headquarters, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, Department of lab medicine, Max Super speciality hospital, Saket Delhi -110017



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