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Cytotoxicity and Toxicological Studies of Artocarpus altilis Extracts, Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest via CASPASE-3 and CASPASE-8 Pathways Against Human Breast MCF-7 Cells

Author(s):

Tara Jalal*, Hatim Abdullah Natto and Ridhwan Abdul Wahab  

Abstract:


In recent biomedical research, the area of cancer and infectious diseases has a leading position in the utilization of medicinal plants as a source of drug discovery. Malaysia has a diversity and a large number of underutilized fruits that are rich in phenolic compounds. Artoarpus altilis consider an underutilized fruit that is rich in phenolic compounds. Methanol extracts of A. altilis have been previously found to contain a high content of antioxidant phytochemicals. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and toxicological effect of methanol fruit extracts against MCF-7 cells. To determine the least concentration that might kill or suppress the growth of the cancer cells was in a concentration-dependent manner approach. The variation in the cytotoxic activity among the extracts was indicated by determining the IC50 of each extract against cells at 72 h. The IC50 of the samples was measured using a trypan blue exclusion assay. The methanol extract of the pulp part showed the least inhibition concentration of 15.40±0.91 μg/mL on MCF-7 cells. In the study, the molecular mechanism of methanol extracts-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrested in human cancer cells were investigated in a time-dependent-manners approach by using flow cytometry. The treated cells were stained with nexin to detect early and late apoptosis and with propidium iodide (PI) for cell cycle arrest associated with the DNA fragmentation, various cell arrests occurred at G1/S, S, and G2/M phases. Lastly, the gene expression analysis by (RT-qPCR) method was carried out by analyzing the expression of the gene of interest for the quantification of mRNA levels. Results after cells treated with IC50 were revealed by upregulating anti-apoptotic genes/downregulated of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 gene expressions were triggered the treated cells into CASPASE-3, intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of three parts of A. altilis fruit have potential anticancer activity against MCF-7 cells mainly the pulp part of the fruit.

Keywords:

Artocarpus altilis, Apoptosis, cell cycle, qPCR, BCL-2, CASPASE-3

Affiliation:

Lebanese French University, Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health and Health Informatics, Umm Qura Al-Qura University, Makkah, Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Campus, Pahang



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